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What is the excerpt

Exposure – this is the time during which the camera captures the image. When photographing, the light is read using a camera matrix or using a film. When we do not take a picture, the film or matrix is ​​closed with a shutter. During shooting, the shutter opens and the film or matrix takes the image from the lens. The amount of time the shutter is open and shutter speed is available.

No, the article is not about alcohol, the article is about the photographic concept of exposure. Exposure is easy. In telephones and digital cameras (soap cases) there is no mechanical shutter per se. There, as the shutter serves as an on / off matrix. But the principle of operation is fully preserved with the only difference, instead of raising the mirror and moving the shutter curtains – the matrix of the soap box is simply updated. Now fashionable mirrorless cameras, such as the Sony ILCE-7 do not have a mirror, but have a real mechanical shutter, which gives the most pleasant click of the shutter.

What is the exposure measured
Exposure is measured in seconds, minutes, hours, days. Usually, even a second is too long a shutter speed, therefore, almost always the shutter speed is indicated in fractions of a second. For example, 1/60, 1/120, 1/500, 1/4000, often add the word “sec” or “s” or “sec”, as is done in my photos in this article. If the shutter speed is indicated in seconds, then the sign of the second is written next to the number – 2 ′, 10 ′, or just 3 s, 15 s. The expression ‘1/20 s’ reads like “one-twentieth of a second.”

How to adjust the shutter speed in the camera?
The easiest way to adjust the shutter speed in the camera is in shutter mode or in manual mode. Exposure mode is usually denoted as S (shutter – shutter) or Sv (shutter value – shutter value, shutter speed), sometimes you can find the designation Tv (time value – time value). This mode is usually located on the wheel of selection of the shooting mode (more detailed here). The shutter speed affects the time that the shutter will open. In these modes, simply set the shutter speed you need. How to do this will have to read in the instructions.

Exposure can be different
There is a very short (fast) shutter speed, for modern digital mirror cameras the shutter speed is usually 1 / 4000s, in advanced cameras 1 / 8000s, in specialized cameras the shutter speed can be 1 / 40.000. For example, my Nikon D5200 has a minimum shutter speed of 1 / 4000s, and the Nikon D7000 – 1 / 8000s, and the old Nikon D1h and the new Nikon 1 J1 – 1 / 16.000s. Short shutter speed is important when shooting very fast objects or when shooting on a super high-aperture lens in bright light. The difference in shutter speed is twice called the stop (step). For example, the difference in exposures 1 / 20s and 1 / 80s is 2 steps (2 feet), or 4 times. How to achieve super short exposure on the camera can read here.

It happens and long exposure. Usually the limit in the length of exposure on modern cameras is 30 or 60 seconds. For example, cameras Nikon D3100, Canon 700D have the ability to get shutter speeds up to 30 seconds. If you need a longer shutter speed, then there is a freehand shutter speed, usually referred to as BULB (B). In this mode, the first press of the shutter button – the shutter opens, and the second press – the shutter closes. Thus, very long exposures can be achieved. Usually long exposure is done using the remote control or camera cable with a tripod or a fixed surface. The photo below was taken on a Nikon D90 and ML-L3 remote control with a shutter speed of 1/13 s. Long exposure can be used to create unusual visual effects, for example, by shooting moving cars at night, or by using a light pen.

Flash sync
There is one serious problem for short exposures. When using a camera with a flash due to the nature of the shutter, the camera cannot synchronize the flash and the shutter speed. Synchronize – means simultaneously to give a pulse of light with a flash and open the shutter. Therefore, you can check that usually a camera with a built-in flash takes photos only at exposures up to 1/200 s. This shutter speed is called the X-sync shutter speed. Some amateur cameras can sync with flash up to 1/500 c – for example, Nikon D40, Nikon D70s. can work with very short exposures. E

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