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What is Vignetting?

Vignetting is the effect of darkening the corners of an image. Often, vignetting is simply called ‘vignette‘
In a broader sense, vignetting is a change in the brightness of an image from the center to the edges of the image. You can also do ‘vignetting on the contrary’, when the edges are brighter than the center of the image.
The above is an example of vignetting that gives a Nikon 50mm f / 1.8D AF Nikkor lens when used on a Nikon D700 full-frame camera and with a full aperture, the lens is focused to infinity, a white sheet with a tripod is photographed. In the corners of the image, a drop in brightness is noticeable, and the brightest part of the image is in the center of the image. 
Considering the fact that when using Nikon FX full-frame lenses, or any other lenses under 35 mm film on Nikon DX cameras, the camera’s matrix captures only the central part of the image, the vignetting effect in this case is almost completely reduced to zero.

Aperture control reduces vignetting

Vignetting is directly related to the number F. The larger the number F (the stronger the diaphragm is closed), the smaller the vignetting. Conversely, the smaller the F number (the stronger the diaphragm is open), the stronger the noticeable vignetting. How to control the number of ‘F’ can be found in the section diaphragm ’.

I have never seen information that the focusing distance also affects the degree of vignetting. Different lenses show different degrees of vignetting when focusing on infinity and on MDF (minimum focusing distance). I noticed this effect when using a cropped lens on a full-frame camera, when the lens did not give a vignette with MDF, and when focusing on infinity, the vignette was simply terrible. Below is an unusual example of a photo that shows the relationship of the focusing distance and the power of vignetting when using a full-frame camera in normal operation and a sprinkled lens ..

Depending on the type of lens, the effect of the interrelation of vignetting and the focal length is manifested differently. Below is an example of varying degrees of vignetting when using a Nikon 28-105mm f / 3.5-4.5D AF Nikkor lens on a Nikon D700 camera, while MDF vignetting is stronger than when focusing on infinity.

Also, zoom lenses have different degrees of vignetting at different focal lengths. Usually the strongest vignette is noticeable at extreme focal lengths.

For example, for landscape photography, vignetting is often highly undesirable, because in order to obtain images without vignetting, it is necessary to shoot at covered diaphragms. And in portrait photography, vignetting can often only benefit.

Vignetting is measured by the degree of decrease in the brightness of the image in the center and at the corners of the image. For example, vignetting -1E.V. means that the edges of the image are darkened by 1 stop or 1 stop stronger than the center of the image. One stop is equal to twice the exposure.

Another reason for the appearance of vignetting can serve as light filters and blends. Very often, vignetting appears on photos that were taken on a lens with an improperly dressed blend. Blends are usually ‘tulip’ in shape, and on one side the petals of тюльп tulip blend ’are smaller than on the other, this is due to the rectangular shape of the matrix or film. If you mix up the sides of the hood or do not properly install the hood on the lens, you can spoil a whole series of photos. It is sometimes impossible to compensate for a vignette from a light filter or blend and you have to crop the image.

Vignetting is very easy to fix by editing the RAW files. Similarly, the vignetting effect can be enhanced specifically to produce an artistic effect, as in the image below. Many cameras have an integrated vignetting adjustment handler. For example, Nikon D700, D5200 cameras, etc. have such a function. For Canon cameras, control ‘peripheral lighting control‘ is responsible for controlling vignetting. Usually, vignetting is done specifically to highlight the key object in the photo, to create the necessary visual tension.

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